The sense of taste. A person who has a fine palate has a perceptive sense of taste. The palate usually confirms what the taster has already noted about the appearance and the smell of the beverage.
The process of destroying harmful micro-organisms in wine, milk and other liquids by heating the liquid above 60oCelsius. A wine that has been pasteurized will not improve or mature.
Another name for the continuous still. Named after Aeneas Coffey "patented" his improvements to Robert Stein's original continuous still.
Is a method for adding flavours to spirit that compares exactly with the percolating of coffee. It is used primarily for making plant liqueurs. The percolator is a large tank. Spirits are put into the bottom of the tank and the flavouring source, in the form of leaves or herbs, is placed in a basket-like container at the top of the tank. The spirits in the bottom of the tank are them pumped to the top where they are sprayed over the leaves or herbs and drip back to the bottom, to be re-percolated over and over until all the flavour and aroma has been extracted.
A beverage made from the fermented juice of crushed pears.
Slightly-sparkling French wine.
Similar to Grande Champagne except that its characteristics appear in slightly lesser degree and it matures rather more quickly. The difference is due to a somewhat smaller proportion of chalk in the soil. In France, Champagne indicates a region of chalky soil.
A burrowing plant louse of the aphid family and native to the eastern United States. The aphids hatch from galls formed on the underside of the leaves or on the root nodules and migrate to all parts of the vine. This pest lives by sucking the sap from the vine, resulting in the eventual death of the plant. Grapes, if able to form, are hard and not usable for wine production or any other use.
The pulp, skins and seeds of grapes remaining after the juice of newly fermented wine has been drawn off or pressed out. Used for the production of Grappa and Marc.
The most famous Portugese fortified wine. It is produced in a demarcated area of the Douro Valley. The fermentation is stopped by the addition of brandy to retain some sweetness in the wine. It is then aged for a varying length of time, depending on the desired style of port - Late Bottled Vintage, Vintage Character, Crusted, Ruby, or Tawny.
Distilling apparatus used mainly in the production of cognac, malt whisky, most Irish whiskies, and some rums. It may also be used for infusing flavours into gin and liqueurs. Pot still distillation requires the double distillation of the base alcohol, sometimes a spirit will be triple distilled. Unlike the continuous still process, pot stills are a individual batch affair and must be loaded or charged for each session.
The wine that is extracted under pressure in a wine press from the sludge or debris remaining after fermentation. Is very high in tannins and pigments.
A measurement of alcoholic strength or content used primarily in the United States. One degree of proof equals one half of one percent of alcohol by volume. An 80 proof product contains 40 percent alcohol by volume, a 90 proof product, 45 percent alcohol, etc.
The indentation in the bottom of the wine bottle, especially in champagne bottles (or other sparkling wines). The punt creates more surface area on the inside of the bottle, thus reducing the pressure to area ratio and hence, reinforces the bottles.
The wooden racks used for remuage during the production of champagne.